B C D E
F G H I
J K L M N
O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
In contradistinction from chronic disease: when a disease
comes on rapidly and produces death rapidly or goes on to speedy recovery.
Concerned with accountants or officials in insurance companies,
whose duty it is to compile statistical tables of mortality and thus estimate
the necessary rate for premiums. This takes into account the combined effect
of interest and probability: with losses due to duration of human life, fire,
accident averages etc.
Ague: see Malaria
AIDS: see HIV/AIDS
Degenerative disorder of the cerebral cortex producing
dementia, primarily in mid to late life. Its onset is often slow, as long as
10 to 15 years, but sometimes as little as five years. It starts with symptoms
of forgetfulness and an inability to learn, developing eventually into what
has been called 'massive dilapidation of the personality', and culminating in
profound dementia: including loss of motor functions, language and memory. The
disease is irreversible and is terminal. The younger the onset of the disease,
the more rapid its course. The cause is as yet uncertain, though there is a
hereditary element (50% of offspring born of a parent with the disease go on
to develop dementia), and there have also been links to a build up of aluminium
in the brain and a previous serious head injury. Only recently distinguished
from general senile dementia, Alzheimer's disease is a major concern causing
50-70% of senile dementia cases.
Enlargement or dilation of the heart, a tumour filled with
blood, from the rupture, wound, ulceration or dilation of an artery.
Disease of cattle and sheep, transferable to man. Characterized
by dark red or purple tumours, followed by an often fatal fever.
Any antibacterial agent derived from micro-organisms, such
Sudden arrest of sense and motion, due to cerebral haemorrhage
or to pressure on or blockage in the blood vessels in the brain.
Arbitration and conciliation boards
Arbitration is the use of an independent body to give a ruling on a dispute
that cannot be settled by the parties involved but it can only be brought
into play if agreed by both sides. Conciliation involves the use of a
third party to see if a deadlock concerning an industrial dispute can
Around the stone
Workplace meetings were conducted near the vicinity of a flat slab of
stone on which images were drawn as part of lithographic printing process.
Chronic genetic disease of the respiratory system, characterized by periods
of relief with recurrence of attacks at regular intervals. Difficulty
of breathing with a sensation of constriction of the chest, due to contraction
of the smaller bronchial tubes. Caused by an allergic reaction to a number
of factors, including pollens, diet, animal hair and bacteria.
Autocorrelation,or serial correlation:
a statistical property
of time series data which exhibits a systematic relationship between consecutive
observations such that datum observed at a specific point in time is related
to earlier observations in the series. This does not suggest, history
students will be relieved to know, merely that past events influence those
which follow; rather, autocorrelation is the technical term used to describes
the residuals (or error terms) estimated by regression analysis of time
series data which exhibit systematic oscillations. Originally seen as
problem by many econometricians, because it violated one of the assumptions
of the BLUE, recently the existence of autocorrelation has been seen more
positively as an indicator of the nature of the economic system under
micro-organism causing diseases which can be treated by antibiotics.
Diseases which show no malignant action.
BLUE: Best Linear Unbiased Estimator; in regression analysis BLUE
provides the optimal line of fit.
Generic term for acute and chronic disease of the kidney, frequently associated
with dropsy, and with coagulation of urine. See nephritis.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes,
the first two branches of the trachea or windpipe. Known internationally as
the 'English Disease' it is more common in Great Britain than any other country,
probably due to the combination of a damp climate and a high level of industrialization
and subsequent pollutants. Consequently one of the most common causes of death
in Britain. It often develops following exposure to cold, or as a result of
inhaling dust or vapours, in either case producing infection by catarrh producing
organisms. Can be either acute or chronic, the former being most fatal among
the very young and very old, whilst the latter being most prevalent in the old.
British Medical Association, BMA:
The professional organization, founded in 1832, which represents physicians
in all branches of medicine. Doctors who are not members are not licensed
BSE: see CJD.
Business cycle, or trade cycle:
a regular pattern of rising
and falling indices of economic activity, such as prices and production
levels, with a typical periodicity of seven to eight years
a term for a trader on the West African coast who traded on behalf of
a particular ruler. These men, mainly African, but sometimes of mixed
race, were often skilled linguists and negotiators.
Or carcinoma, tumour, neoplasm. Tumours in various parts of the body with
uncontrollable growth. Usually applied to 'malignant' cells because of
their unlimited power of disorderly reproduction, their capacity to invade
and destroy the tissues from which they arise, and their capacity to produce
secondary growths some distance from the primary cancer.
goods used to produce goods and services; in Marxian
economics capital also refers to the social relationship created by ownership
of the means of production.
Non-permanent workers usually hired by the half day, day or on a particular
job. These workers are easily laid off when no work is available.
CDR, see Crude Death Rate.
Or intra-cranial vascular lesions, vascular
lesions of the nervous system, cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy, stroke. An escape
of blood from the vessels in the brain. Refers to the condition (commonly known
as stroke or apoplexy) caused by diseased condition of the brain. Can be caused
by an embolism, or a blockage of the blood vessels in the brain: this occurs
absolutely suddenly. In elderly people the onset is more gradual, caused by
extensively diseased blood vessels, with clotting known as thrombosis. Death
may occur in the form of a cerebral infarction. The most important form
of cerebrovascular disease, and that occasioning by far the most deaths is the
cerebral haemorrhage. Here, the blood escapes from the degenerated blood vessels
into the brain. Where it is a large blood vessel, and where the leaking is around
the brain's most important structures, a serious stroke follows. In this case,
death most often follows within a short period. In cases of recovery, paralysis
often remains, and a recurrence of the haemorrhage is likely, with an increasing
chance of death from each successive attack. Usually a disease of the elderly,
but can occur in any age group.
The word for the workplace printers' trade union branch.
An often fatal disease characterized by vomiting of bile and
intestinal muscle spasms. Disease originated in India, spreading westwards and
eventually arriving in Britain in 1831. Caused by a bacteria spread primarily
by contaminated water, but also by flies contaminating food with infected faeces.
Prevalent in epidemic condition in crowded conditions occasioned by war, famine
and extreme poverty
Diseases of long duration, as opposed to acute
Usually a disease of the liver (also known as 'Hobnail Liver'),
though the term has more recently been applied to other organs. The proper tissue
of the organ is replaced by scar tissue, and in the liver, the colour of the
organ turns to yellow. It was commonly, but not exclusively associated with
chronic alcoholic excess, though modern research has found that this only damages
the liver in tandem with another factor, such as nutritional deficiency.
The extent to which members of a social class are aware of their common
interests, recognise their collective identity and unite in solidarity
to advance the cause or interests of its class.
a term of mild derision coined by Stanley Ratner
to label those who applied econometric methods to engage in historical
analysis. This term was immediately adopted as a badge of pride by those
who saw themselves as the targets of his remark, who refer to themselves
as Cliometricians. The Cliometric Society, mainly but not solely a product
of the USA, meets regularly to discuss research produced in this tradition.
See also econometric history, historical economics and New
In a workplace where a closed shop is enforced workers must be a member
of an appropriate trade union.
CJD, see Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.
The process of negotiating collective agreements concerning pay and conditions
between representatives of management and employees, which acts to produce
an accommodation between capital and labour.
Coefficient of variation:
an index of a variable's dispersion
around its estimated mean; calculated as the ratio of the standard deviation
to the mean.
Conjuctivitis: eye infection, see also ophthalmia neonatorum.
Consumption: see Tuberculosis.
Or coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction. Clot in the blood vessels
supplying the heart muscle. The lack of blood supply to the heart in this
sudden attack causes acute pain and the damage associated with the 'heart
Correlation analysis: a statistical procedure
which examines the relationship between a dependent variable and one or
more independent variables; this is quantified in terms of the deviation
from the mean of each to discover the degree to which there may be associated
movements which might indicate a causal relationship. See Correlation
.Correlation coefficient, r:
a descriptive statistic indicative
of the degree of association between one variable and another (or, others,
in the case of multiple correlation). An estimated correlation coefficient
lies in the range of +1 and -1. A perfect positive correlation of +1 indicates
that the two variables together change in the same direction while a perfect
negative, or inverse, correlation of -1 indicates the variables change
in the opposite directions, one growing while the other contracts. A correlation
coefficient of zero (0) indicates that it is unlikely that there is a
statistically significant association between the two variables.
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA):
an economic procedure which assesses
the impact of an innovation in terms of a counterfactual world in which
it is absent. By the inclusion of social costs and benefits CBA attempts
to quantify externalities ignored by a conventional accounting assessment
of profit and loss generated by the adoption of an innovation. Cost-Benefit
Analysis can be applied to political innovations including, for example,
assessment of the creation of the Irish Free State or, more recently,
the impact of devolution for Scotland and Wales. The most often cited
examples relate to transport innovations where Cost-Benefit analysis has
been used to asses the economic and social savings provided by Severn
Road Bridge or, on a larger scale, the impact of railroads in the United
States. In the context of Bristol's history, it would be interesting to
conduct a Cost-Benefit Analysis of the unadopted nineteenth century proposal
to canalise the River Avon between the city's docks and the Severn Channel
at Avonmouth. Bristol's businessmen are still criticised as unenterprising
and lacking in initiative by some historians because they failed to make
this innovative investment in transport infrastructure. However, even
a cursory inspection of the financial history of the Manchester Ship Canal
Company, the natural comparator in a counterfactual assessment of a Bristol
Ship Canal, suggests that Bristolians were sensible in their aversion
to this grandiose but futile project.
historical analysis which
attempts to assess the relative importance of an event (or institution)
by assuming an alternative scenario in which the event did not occur (or
the institution was absent). Originally seen by historians as 'virtual
history' or 'fictitious history' that was ill-employed by quantitative
economic historians, counterfactual analysis has recently grown in appeal
for some historians - though, by contrast to the careful specifications
of the New Economic History, these stories are often 'What-If?' speculations
of an ill-defined nature. See Cost-Benefit Analysis; New Economic
information presented to
represent a variety of categories, or cases, at a specific point in time;
e.g. the electorate of each of Bristol parishes in 1774 or the number
of females living in each of England's counties as enumerated by the Population
Census of 1901. cf: time series data and panel data
Or membranous croup. Disease marked by laborious, suffocative breathing
with creaking noise and short, dry cough and spitting of concrete membranous
sputa. Often associated with diphtheria, though it can also be caused
by acute laryngitis (infection of the larynx).
Crude Death Rate, CDR:
The basic measure of mortality, or number of deaths related to population:
expressed as a rate per 1,000 of the population. Unadjusted, or not corrected
by reference to modifying circumstances. The CDR does not take into account,
for example, the age composition of a community: thus areas with an ageing
population will have a higher death-rate, though are not necessarily less
healthy than areas with a younger population.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, CJD.
A rapidly progressing dementia (usually within the course of a year),
mainly affecting those between the ages of 40 and 65. It is transmitted
by animals and inoculation with brain tissue of people with the disease.
This rare disease is thought to be caused by a slow virus acting on the
brain, and recently links have been made between CJD and the disease of
BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in cattle, and that there may be
a causal link between the infected meat of cattle suffering from this
disease and younger people developing CJD
two or more datum (i.e. plural of datum), a series of observations,
cases, facts; information. From the Latin, given things.
Datum: a single piece of information (i.e. singular
of data). From Latin (dare: to give), something given.
Datum point: a point of reference (a given or
Database management system, DBMS:
a computer application
which allows the user to create tables, or databases, to store, analyse
or present information; useful for the investigation of large datasets,
especially where there are complex interrelationships.
DBMS: database management system.
Dockworkers designated to unload timber imported from all over the world.
Death Rate: see Mortality
the quantitative approach and methods
adopted to describe data (e.g. average, mean, mode, range, standard deviation,
coefficient of variation)
Or diabetes mellitus. Genetic disease, characterized by the
accumulation of sugar in the blood and the consequent passage of large quantities
of urine containing glucose, accompanied by thirst and emaciation. This is a
constitutional disorder in which the ability of the tissues to utilize sugar
for nutrition is diminished or lost because of a lack of insulin (the internal
secretion of the pancreas). Severe cases can result in death through inflammatory
chest affections or diabetic coma.
A purging, looseness or too frequent passing of faeces. Really a symptom
of some disease in the bowels. Often associated with cholera, dysentery,
typhoid fever and tuberculosis in its most serious form. More recently
it has been especially a symptom of intestinal infectious diseases and
food poisoning. Infantile diarrhoea has long been the most serious form,
often accompanied by vomiting. Most of these cases are caused by infantile
gastroenteritis, with the rest (circa 10%) being made up by dysentery.
Diffusion: a process of temporal adoption. The
differential spread of an innovation over time, through space and within
social groups; the adoption of hindu-arabic numerals in Bristol between
1580 and 1670 is an example of technical diffusion.
The introduction of workers regarded as unskilled to work on tasks in
whole or part categorised as skilled. In the context of this study dilution
is the process where unskilled workers, mainly women replaced skilled
workers called upon to fight in the two world wars.
Highly infectious disease, attacking the mucous membrane
of the pharynx (at the back of the throat), the tonsils and air passages in
which false membranes are formed. Frequently followed by temporary paralysis.
Differs from croup in that the latter is only a local inflammation of the larynx.
Disease conveyed by direct contagion (kissing an affected person, by their coughing
or by using their cup or spoon), but can also be conveyed in milk. The disease
has been mainly eradicated in Britain since the 1940s by vaccination.
An abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin or in the
cavities of the body.
A water-borne disease, affecting the intestines in which inflammation
and ulceration occur, and marked by faeces which is mainly mucus, sometimes
mixed with blood. The disease is usually accompanied by diarrhoea and
fever. Death can result in severe cases from haemorrhage from the gut.
There are two main forms of the disease, bacillary and amoebic, the former
being prevalent all over the world and the major type in Britain, and
the latter mainly confined to the tropics (many cases identified recently
in Britain were contracted in these parts of the world). Bacillary dysentery
occurs sporadically or in epidemics, and is spread by flies, direct contact
or infected water: overcrowding and unsanitary conditions encouraged epidemics.
It is far less fatal today because of the use of the sulphonamides group
of drugs in the treatment of the disease, but still can be dangerous in
young infants, the old and malnourished.
Durbin-Watson test; a statistical test for autocorrelation.
Econometric history (Or Cliometric History,
or Historical Economics):
the use of economic theory, statistical
techniques and historical data to investigate the past. Historians usually
define econometric history as the application of quantitative methods
to historical information but, in so doing, they neglect the most element
of this trinity - the use of economic theory. Although the economic theory
employed is usually neo-classical this is not exclusively the case as
both Keynesian and Marxian economic theory have informed research in econometric
history. See also Counterfactual history; Cost-Benefit analysis.
a sub-division of the discipline
of economics, Applied econometricians test economic theory using quantitative
techniques to analyse numerical information, usually economic data.
the study of the allocation of scarce
resources, through production and distribution, between competing and
alternative uses, in the face of unlimited human demands. Economists study
markets, and alternative systems of economic co-ordination, to investigate
human activity motivated by desires to survive, reproduce and prosper.
Economist trade union militancy
Marxin concept describing the limitation of class struggle by trade union
leaders to immediate economic demands where industrial disputes usually
involve demands for more pay.
Edward Colston (1636-1721):
A Bristol-born merchant who lived for most of his life in London,
he left the equivalent of millions of pounds to Bristol churches and charities
on his death. He was involved in numerous enterprises including the trade
in wine, dried fruit, and West Indian sugar. He was a high official of
the Royal African Company which had the monopoly on the slave trade until
a measure of relative movement in electoral support
from one political party to its rival based on ballots cast at successive
elections; the electoral swing is the average of one party's gain and
Employer initiated schemes designed to increase commitment and motivation.
Or encephalitis lethargica, cephalitis. Encephalitis is
a viral infection which causes inflammation of the brain and its membranes.
In Encephalitis Lethargica dropsical swelling, haemorrhages and destruction
of areas of tissue involving both nerve-cells and fibres may occur. This can
also involve the spinal cord and even other organs. The disease is marked by
a period of drowsiness or lethargy, which may become complete unconsciousness.
Following this there may be various forms of paralysis. The most dramatic episode
of infection followed the influenza pandemic after the First World War; its
consequences were the subject of Oliver Sacks' book and film of the same name
A disease always found in a locality, at a relatively constant
level. cf Epidemic.
Enteric fever: see typhoid.
Epidemic and Pandemic:
A disease which affects a abnormally large number
of people in a particular locality at one time, usually referring to infectious
diseases. A pandemic is an epidemic which affects a vast area, such as a country
or a continent. cf endemic.
The science of epidemics, usually taken to mean the study
of infectious diseases and their spread.
A disease of the nervous system, with symptoms of fits of
sudden and temporary loss of consciousness, with convulsions. Characterized
by fits sometimes accompanied by foaming at the mouth. When there is a constant
succession of attacks extending over many hours, there are sometimes fatal results.
Also known as 'St Anthony's Fire'. A contagious infection
causing bright red colour of the skin of the face, with blisters and fever.
Caused by the streptococcus organism as with scarlet fever. Fatal results can
follow from the disease when it leads to inflammation of the membranes of the
brain, and in some cases from suffocation from inflammation of the throat. It
is most common in those between the ages of 50 and 60, and more common in women.
Erysipelas neonatorum, attacking new-born infants in the first month or so of
life, is particularly fatal.
Or febrile state. A condition of the body characterized by an
increase in temperature, commonly accompanying many infectious and other diseases.
When the body's temperature exceeds 107 degrees Fahrenheit (the normal temperature
range being 98.4 to 99.5) for any length of time, death almost always results.
Has become synonymous with bacterial food poisoning.
This can be from a number of different strains of bacteria, including salmonella,
and staphyloccocal food poisoning which results from unhygienic handling of
food products. Food poisoning is characterized by vomiting, diarrhoea
and abdominal pain. It is rarely fatal, though one of its rarest forms, botulism,
again caused by mishandling of foods, is fatal in over 50% of cases.
Mutual aid organizations formed voluntarily by individuals
in order to protect members against debts incurred through ill-health, old age
and death. Devised in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but coming to
prominence in the nineteenth century, they often developed into insurance companies.
This necessitated an estimate of the magnitude of risk, especially in terms
of average ages of death, to ensure that members' contributions were sufficent
to meet the risk.
Or gastritis, gastris-enteritis. Inflammation of the stomach and of the
intestines due to a viral infection. Most serious is infantile gastroenteritis,
caused by the E. coli organism or other viruses, which affects mainly
those under the age of fifteen months. The younger the patient, the higher
chance of death from gastroenteritis and its main symptom, diarrhoea.
General Practitioners, GPs: or Family Practitioners.
Single (or in combination in small practices), locally based physicians
who meet all the basic health needs of their patients. The point of entry
into the health system for most people in Britain. Still prevalent today
in Britain, but less so in America.
General Register Office, GRO:
established in 1837 to administer the new system of civil registration
for births, deaths and marriages. Under the powers of the Births and Deaths
Registration Act and the Marriage Act of the previous year the position
of Registrar General was created with the ability to gather statistics
on these areas, using the system of poor law unions and Boards of Guardians
to collect and structure this information.
German Measles: see Rubella.
The theoretical association of micro-organisms with disease
developed in the late nineteenth century. Though germs, or bacteria, had been
recognized from the seventeenth century, it was not until the work of Pasteur
from 1865 and Koch from the mid-1870s onwards, that the definite causative link
was made between this lowest form of life and disease. By their rapid reproduction
in the body of the person or animal infected and their production of toxins,
or products injurious to tissues, they produced the symptoms of infectious disease.
Gonorrhoea: see venereal disease.
GPs, see General Practitioners.
GRO, see General Register Office.
Goods: tangible commodities or products; e.g. apples, buses or
computers. cf. Services.
Or infective jaundice. Inflammation of the liver, with jaundice being
the classic (though not universal) symptom: a yellowness of the skin.
In its acute form, caused by an intestinal viral infection passing
from the faeces of infected persons to the mouth of the next. Hepatitis
as mere inflammation of the liver may also be caused by amoebic dysentery,
malaria, yellow fever or gall stones.
Deidre McCloskey's preferred
term for the New Economic History or Cliometric History.
In identifying some of the resistance of historians to quantitative analysis
as cultural, McCloskey suggested that the adoption of the term Cliometrics
was not necessarily going to make a difficult task easier; see D.N. McCloskey
(1987) Econometric History, p.1-18. cf: History of Economics.
History of Economics:
a branch of economics which
examines the lineage and characteristics of propositions in economic theory
and applied economics. cf: Historical Economics.
Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency
syndrome. AIDS is an incurable infection with the HIV virus: once full-blown
AIDS is developed it is always fatal. It is still relatively rare in the West,
though it is endemic over a large part of Africa. In Britain it has primarily
affected homosexual men, intravenous drug abusers and haemophiliacs. It is transmitted
by sexual contact, parental transmission and infected blood products. Once infected
there is a gap of around 5 years before the onset of symptoms. Not all of those
who have contracted the HIV virus go on to develop AIDS.
Human Resource Management (HRM)
There is no consensus on the definition of HRM but it is usually understood
to focus more closely on emphasising employees as valued company assets
to be individually nurtured, developed and involved in order to secure
commitment and loyalty and improve performance. Trade union representation
does not fit well with this philosophy.
The science of preserving health, taking in measures such as
sanitation and adequate and clean water supply.
Hyperplasia of Prostate: see Prostate.
Or high blood-pressure. This is the persistence of blood pressure at this
raised condition. If unchecked it usually results in eventual death as
a result of heart attack, stroke or kidney failure. Mainly a disease of
those over the age of 50, most common in men, in the obese and with a
hereditary factor. ICD: The International Classification of Diseases.
A common system of categorizing all causes of death, developed in the
early part of the century, which the GRO used as a guideline for compilation
of its cause of death statistics from 1911. From 1948 the ICD came under
the aegis of the World Health Organization, as part of a United Nations
initiative, and from then its classification was extended to include notifications
Hypothesis: an unproved causal relationship; an assumption or
Resistance to an infection, which can either be complete
or partial and be acquired through previous exposure, vaccination or by heredity.
Immunisation: to make immune, often by inoculation.
Infant Mortality Rate:
Generally taken to mean the deaths of those under
the age of 1 year. This is the definition used in this Abstract,. The infant
mortality rate is the deaths of those under the age of 1 related to the number
of births: expressed as a rate per 1,000 births.
a localised accumulation of dead tissue, caused by
obstruction of the blood supply.
the quantitative approach and methods
used to search for relationships between variables.
Viral disease with cold-like symptoms in the upper respiratory
tract, characterized by the suddenness of its attack, fever and generalized
aches and pains. Highly contagious, it usually occurs in epidemics and pandemics.
There were epidemics in 1830, 1833, 1836 and then a gap till 1889-90,
1897 and then the most serious of all in 1918-19. In this last pandemic,
spreading across the world, 15-20 million were killed. The influenza virus can
change its character easily, making vaccination against the disease very
difficult. Antibiotics and other drugs are also ineffective against the
virus. Infection of the lungs can follow, mainly by organisms other than the
influenza virus. This can be particularly serious in old age. Also broncho-pneumonia
can rapidly follow, and this killed many in the 1918-19 pandemic.
Joint Industrial Council:
A government sponsored institution, originating
from the recommendations of the Whitley Committee in 1917 and 1918, where
representatives of employer organisations and trade unions met on a regular
basis to discuss, negotiate and attempt to settle their differences concerning
wages and conditions of employment.
The use of labour power, hand or brain, to transform raw materials into
useful products and services.
Letter of Marque:
This was a document which British merchant ships could procure from the
Government during war-time which gave them the right to capture enemy
ships (and have a share in the goods they captured). A ship having such
a letter was called a privateer.
A disease ranging from mild influenza-like form to a
fatal form of jaundice due to severe liver disease. An occupational hazard of
farmers, sewage and abattoir workers, fish cutters and veterinary surgeons,
due to the presence of the micro-organism causing the disease in animal faeces
and effluent. It can also be acquired from bathing in contaminated water. Amenable
to treatment by penicillin.
A form of malignant cancer in which the number of white corpuscles in
the blood is permanently increased. Can be either acute or chronic. Characterized
by enlargement of the spleen and enlargement of the lymph glands. The
disease is often fatal after a very few years.
a legal provision which restricts the liability
of a holder of company assets to any unpaid portion; only the money paid
to obtain these is put at risk and the owner is absolved from responsibility
for trading losses.
Local Boards of Health:
Instituted by the Public Health Act of 1848,
local councils were obliged to set up committees of councillors to oversee the
provision of adequate public health and sanitation measures.
Local Government Board:
Government department created in 1871 (from
the merger of the Poor Law Board, the Local Government Act Office of the Home
Office and the Medical Council of the Privy Council) to supervise local government
services. It also had responsibility for the system of poor relief and associated
medical services for the poor (from 1873). It was superseded by the Ministry
of Health in 1919.
Ague or marsh fever is a disease caused by the presence of
parasites in the blood. These are carried by a species of Mosquito particularly
in swampy ground in warmer climates. The disease is characterized by a series
of cold, hot and sweating stages in the patient. These attacks occur regularly
but with periods of good health between attacks. But the temperature of the
person affected sometimes rises till death occurs. Worst symptoms alleviated
by drugs such as quinine.
A term mainly applied to tumours when they grow rapidly,
infiltrate surrounding tissues and spread to distant parts of the body, leading
to eventual death.
From the theories of the English economist Thomas Malthus (1766-1834).
Malthus proposed that that without natural checks human populations tend
to outrun the means available to sustain them. Malthusians suggested that
population increase should be checked by moral constraint, particularly
referring to the lower classes.
a materialist interpretation
of history which identifies the struggle between antagonistic economic
classes, defined by the ownership of the means of production, as the major
determinant of history, proposed by Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) and Karl
Marx (1818-1883) in The Communist Manifesto (1848).
an array of data in rows and columns.
A newly opened spreadsheet file provides a matrix into which data can
Mean square deviation, see variance.
Means of production: physical assets used by labour
to produce goods and services.
Morbilli or rubeola. Acute, contagious, viral disease, especially of early
childhood after 6 months of age, characterized by a morbilli or rash,
spreading from the face (which becomes swollen and bloated) to all parts
of the body. It is accompanied by a fever stage, and infection of the
respiratory passages. Here, in serious cases, especially where there is
bad hygiene, it can lead to death through bronchitis or pneumonia. It
is rarely absent in Britain, and attacks every two years. One attack usually
gives immunity from future attacks. It is one of the most infectious diseases,
spread mostly by infected droplets from the nose and throat, sneezed or
coughed into the air.
Medical Officer of Health, MOH:
These were appointed by the Local Board of Health to apply their medical
knowledge to the process of improving sanitary conditions and monitoring
public health within sanitary areas. Their appointment was not made compulsory
by the government, so while some areas appointed MOHs as early as 1847
(in the case of Liverpool, with London following suit the following year),
others such as Bristol did not appoint a MOH until 1865.
Or malignant melanoma. Tumour arising from the pigmented cells
of moles on the surface of the skin. Major form of skin cancer.
Or cerebro-spinal meningitis, cerebro-spinal fever. Infective
disease causing inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord. The
majority of cases of death from meningitis are through Meningococcal Meningitis,
but there are also a significant number from tuberculous meningitis, syphilitic
meningitis and other forms of infecting organism. Meningococcal meningitis is
a dangerous epidemic condition characterized by painful contractions of the
muscles of the neck and mental symptoms. There is fever, the appearance of red
spots on the trunk of the victim, with death often occurring within a week of
the onset of the disease. There were epidemics among British troops during the
1914-18 war and in Britain in 1939-40. It usually affects a closed community
such as a school or garrison, and tends to occur in the months of February,
March and April. It is spread through the nose, by coughing and sneezing. Young
children are much more susceptible than adults. Treatment by penicillin brought
mortality rates down from 70-100% to 7-10%.
Infection by the meningococcal organism which
can result in Meningitis, but may lead to other symptoms such as septicaemia,
or blood poisoning.
The now discredited theory of spread of disease by 'bad air', or more
particularly floating particles of decayed animals or vegetables in the
air. It was thought later that this poisonous effluent in the air might
be a gas from cesspits and sewers which was carried by the air to open
wounds or into people's lungs. This theory was prevalent from the late
eighteenth century into the first half of the nineteenth century, and
led to measures against fouling the air and creating more open spaces
the investigation economic agents,
including consumers (households), producers (firms), and specific markets
(goods, services and money).
'the detailed study of geographic
patterns at the level of sub-areas and small scale regions. The emphasis
is on individual and small-group behaviour as related to the local environment
and the social, cultural and economic workings of the group are outlined
in depth.' Brian Goodall (1987: Facts on File: New York) The Facts
on File Dictionary of Human Geography, p. 301.
detailed historical analysis of
specific communities or districts which investigates economic, social
and political behaviour of individuals and locally-based institutions.
MOH, see Medical Officer of Health.
Morbidity/Morbidity Rate: Or Morbility.
The extent or degree
of prevalence of disease in a given area, whether the disease is fatal or not.
Morbidity rate is the sick-rate or attack rate, with incidence of disease related
to population: expressed usually as a rate per 1,000 of the population.
Mortality/ Mortality Rate:
The number of deaths which occur in a given area or period from particular
diseases, or from all causes of death. Mortality rate is the average frequency
of death or death-rate: which can be expressed as a rate per 1,000, per
100,000 or per 1,000,000 of the population. This abstract has expressed
morbidity as a rate per 1,000.
correlation of two explanatory
variables. In multiple regression, multicollinearity exists when two or
more of independent variables, used to model the dependent variable, are
Disease of the brain and spinal cord, marked by
hardened patches appearing in the brain and spinal cord, damaging the motor
functions of the brain. The cause of the disease is still uncertain. It is slow
in onset but produces symptoms such as paralysis and tremors, which over time
become confirmed often with great rigidity in the limbs. The disease mainly
affects young people, under the age of 40, and many show no shortened duration
of life, though they are permanently invalided.
A highly infectious disease characterized by swelling of the
salivary glands, caused by a virus. Often occurring in epidemics in winter and
spring and mostly affecting young persons, it is rarely fatal. As well as the
characteristic swelling around the jaw, there is fever and the swelling can
spread to the testicles in males and to the ovaries and breasts in women. Meningitis,
and abdominal inflammation can also be a complication, and these are most likely
to affect those contracting the disease as adults.
Nephritis: Or Bright's Disease.
Inflammation of the kidneys. Almost always associated with infection of
the upper respiratory tract by a streptococcal organism, the causative
element in scarlet fever and erysipelas. It sometimes occurs in association
with these diseases. The kidneys have an allergic reaction to the organism
and the kidneys become red, swollen and congested. There is vomiting,
back pain, some fever and dropsy. In severe cases, urine is stopped completely
by the inflammation, and death follows. More frequently, the inflammation
subsides, but subacute nephritis (nephrosis) can remain. Following this
a state of chronic nephritis is often reached, where the kidneys are small
contracted and white in appearance, with kidney tissue replaced by scar
tissue. Heightened blood-pressure can cause heart failure or stroke. Otherwise
another infection may kill the weakened sufferer, or stoppage of the passage
of urine paralyses vital activity.
economic theory which
assumes the efficiency of market relationships to achieve optimal resource
allocations and maximization of social welfare.
Or nephrotic syndrome. Degeneration of the kidneys characterized by anaemia,
dropsy and coagulation of the fluids in the kidneys. This is most often
caused by acute nephritis damaging the kidneys. There is fluid in the
abdomen, reduced blood-pressure and reduction in output of urine. Sufferers
are susceptible to infections, especially in the lungs and intestines,
which may prove fatal. It can also lead to chronic nephritis.
New Economic History:
a school of history which
emerged in the United States in the late 1950s which comprised largely
of economists who used neo-classical economic theory and quantitative
techniques to test propositions about historical phenomena or institutions.
Pioneering New Economic Historians used capital theory, analysis of supply
and demand conditions and counterfactual models to investigate the impact
of the railroad on economic growth in the United States of America and
the economic viability of slavery in the Southern States. Some historians
found the New Economic History unappealing, and even unattractive; often
these objections appeared to derive from culturally determined prejudices.
Much criticism was misdirected and based on a fundamental error concerning
the nature of quantitative analysis. It was assumed by critics that New
Economic Historians used sophisticated statistical techniques which required
copious amounts of accurate data to produce exact and precise parameters;
but on each count the reverse was the case: the statistical techniques
were relatively simple; the quantity and quality of data required were
no more than that which a good 'traditional' historian to provide a well-grounded
interpretation, or tell a convincing story; and, rather than being spuriously
accurate, the results obtained were reported in a way which clearly indicated
the extent to which they could be regarded as robust, or reliable. It
is also remarkable that, contrary to the assertion made by those who derided
their efforts, the New Economic Historians proved to be committed and
exemplary information gatherers, searching out neglected sources, as well
scouring those more commonly used, to publish datasets which have provided
the foundations for much recent scholarship. See: R.W. Fogel (1964: John
Hopkins UP: Baltimore) Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays
in Econometric History; A. Fishlow (1965: Harvard UP: Cambridge, Mass.)
American Railroads and the Transformation of the Antebellum Economy;
A. Conrad & J.R. Meyer (1958) 'The economics of slavery in the Ante
Bellum South', Journal of Political Economy, vol.66, pp.95-130).
See also Cliometrics.
data representing a variable which
is defined in terms of its quality rather than by a quantitative attribute;
for example, gender, which is usually assumed to be a dichotomous variable.
Nominal record linkage:
the association of data,
typically in a DBMS, according to shared nominal characteristics;
the joining of relational tables, for example by surnames or gender.
Nominative record linkage:
the association of
data, typically in a DBMS, linked by name.
Null hypothesis, Ho:
the opposite to the
maintained hypothesis; i.e. the alternative hypothesis tested to ascertain
if the relationship under investigation may be the result of chance rather
than the proposed causal relationship under investigation.
Or conjunctivitis. Inflammation of the eye in
newly born children. This is due to infection from the mother usually due to
the venereal disease, gonorrhoea. There is severe ulceration, which can severely
damage the eyes. Once responsible for half of the blindness in children, it
is now much reduced.
An increased porousness of bone due to lack of calcium,
a manifestation of the ageing process, and accentuated by immobilization in
bed. This 'brittle bone' disorder leads to sufferers breaking bones far more
easily. Pandemic: see Epidemic.
a structured data set which combines both cross-sectional
data and time-series data; for example, the population of English counties
enumerated by four consecutive Censuses of Population.
(1) a numerical constant in a mathematical
equation; (2) a descriptive statistic which provides a summary measure
of a characteristic (or attribute) of a population (e.g. the average height
of all females who live in Bristol); for a sample the equivalent descriptive
statistic is termed the estimate of that parameter (the average height
of a sample of all females who live in Bristol).
Parametric tests: 'Classical' statistical analysis
which makes a number of assumptions about the nature and character of
data to estimate parameters.
A form of enteric fever. A case of fever resembling typhoid, but
of shorter duration, noticed at the end of the nineteenth century. Less
severe symptoms than typhoid fever, though the onset of the disease
is often more sudden.
Implicit in a paternalist relationship between an employer and employees
is employers' commitment to a set of economic and social obligations designed
to secure workers' deference.
Inflammation of the membranous bag which contains the
heart. Caused by heart disease.
Old term for pulmonary tuberculosis or consumption.
A payment scheme based on how much a worker produces.
Inflammation of the lungs. This mainly takes the form of
acute pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia, though pneumonia can also be a complication
of other diseases, such as typhoid fever. In its acute form it is caused by
the pneumococcus bacteria and is marked by congestion of blood in the lungs
(usually just one lung unless the more serious condition of double pneumonia
is contracted), vomiting, pain in the chest and fever. These are accompanied
at first by a frequent, hacking cough bringing up eventually copious rusty-brown
material. Death can take place due to the extent of inflammation, exhaustion,
or heart failure. The disease is most common between the ages of 20 and 50 and
is more prevalent in the late winter and early spring. The death rate from the
disease is highest in the under fives and over 60s. In broncho-pneumonia the
inflammation is more diffuse and there is increased difficulty in breathing,
the infection usually being the result of Bronchitis. It mainly affects the
young and the old, and is one of the chief causes of death in the aged. It rapidly
becomes fatal in weakly persons, the inflammation spreading and the lungs filling
up with secretion. Both forms can turn into chronic pneumoni.
Viral disease from the same group as poliomyelitis,
causing inflammation of the cortical grey matter of the brain.
Viral disease causing inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord.
The major symptom of the disease is paralysis of the limbs. Where the
diaphragm and muscles of respiration are involved, breathing may be prevented,
and the sufferer may die in a very short space of time. It is spread by
contact with faeces then by hand to mouth. Epidemics tend to occur in
the late summer and early autumn. The introduction of a vaccine has now
practically eradicated the disease in Britain.
Probability: an essential building block of statistical
analysis which indicates the likelihood of an event occurring (or a case
being observed; or a relationship being significant); the limits specified
range from zero (0) to one (1).
a characteristic of a variable.
Property rights: a social relationship which defines the legally
enforced by the state.
gland in the male reproductive organs. Hyperplasia of the
prostate is the abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissue
of the prostate. This causes an obstruction in the passing of urine from the
bladder. The condition affects those late in life, and can only be treated by
removal of the organ, which it is estimated one in ten men will require at some
time in life.
Or puerperal septic disease, metria, puerperal pyrexia.
Generalized infection during the puerperum (following childbirth), usually starting
with inflammation of the peritoneum. The mother at this time is particularly
susceptible owing to weakness and wounds in the genital tract caused by accidents
in childbirth. Most commonly the streptococcus bacteria is involved. Most frequently,
blood poisoning ensues. Pyrexia usually refers to any feverish condition within
fourteen days of pregnancy other than puerperal fever. Antiseptic measures and
cleanliness have reduced the condition to a minimum.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Consumption or phthisis. Tuberculosis
of the lungs or respiratory system. Characterized by emaciation, debility, cough,
hectic fever and expectoration (spitting) of pus. This form of tuberculosis
is spread by the bacteria in the sputum and other discharges of sufferers: either
inhaled dried in the form of dust or as droplets coughed into the air. 90% of
those dying from tuberculosis do so as it affects the lungs. A marked symptom
of the disease is spitting of blood, and this becomes more extreme as the disease
progresses, and the haemorrhaging which causes this often brings about the death
of the sufferer. Death from Consumption has been drastically reduced since the
1950s after the sustained programme of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccinations,
the first vaccine to give significant immunity against tuberculosis.
Pyrexia: see Puerperal Fever
historical analysis of numerical
data. See also Econometric History; Historical Economics;
and New Economic History.
see Correlation coefficient.
said 'R-squared'; the correlation coefficient;
literally r times itself.
unsystematic or haphazard; a process where the outcome
of any event is the result of chance. cf systematic, predetermined.
a statistical technique which
estimates a functional relationship between a dependent variable and one
or more independent variables in the form of a fitted regression line.
See also correlation analysis.
Relational database management system (RDMS):
a Database Management System which facilitates the joining of two or more
separate database files; examples include ACCESS, PARADOX and ORACLE.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, with enlargement and abrasion
of the bones, and deposit in the tissues around. Rubella: Or German measles.
An acute infectious disease with mild effects, often difficult to differentiate
from mild measles or scarlet fever. Characterized by enlargement of the
neck glands and a pink rash. Important as a disease in pregnancy as it
can be responsible for congenital defects in the unborn child.
St Anthony's Fire: see Erysipelas
One of the commonest forms of food poisoning is that caused
by a bacteria from the salmonella group. This bacteria may be present in all
foods of animal origin: including meats, dairy products and eggs. Onset of food
poisoning is within 12 to 48 hours after eating the contaminated food.
The science which aims at the prevention of disease, and
improvement of the general health of the populace by mitigation of all external
conditions which tend to disease in individuals. It takes in a knowledge of
medicine, bacteriology, engineering, meteorology, architecture and geology.
Measures arising from it include improvements in ventilation, sewerage, refuse
disposal, water supply, hospital accommodation, programmes of disinfection,
disposal of the dead, the abatement of nuisances and the inspection of meat
Workers who refuse to join a strike or volunteer to replace workers involved
in strike action.
Highly contagious disease characterized by
swollen face, fever, sore throat and a scarlet eruption on the skin in patches.
Vomiting and delirium or convulsions are also features of the disease in childhood.
The tongue also becomes white and furred with red spots. Ending in separation
of scales of skin beneath the fingernails and sometimes a general peeling of
the skin over the body. Distinguished from measles since the late 17th century,
this disease is due to an infection with a haemolytic streptococcus. Spread
by infectious discharges from the nose, ears and throat, it can also be carried
by milk. Primarily a disease of childhood (the vast majority of cases being
under 15, with most of those under 5), it can also affect women in the puerperal
state. Adults can contract the disease if they did not suffer from it as infants,
but one attack usually confers immunity from a second. It is also an autumnal
disease, appearing most often in September, October and November. The main and
most serious complication of the disease is nephritis, which can end in uraemic
poisoning (suppression of urine) or general dropsy, both of which can rapidly
prove fatal. It can also lead to chronic nephritis or heart disease. Mainly
non-lethal since the early part of the century, it responds to sulphonamide
drugs or penicillin. Careful nursing, avoiding chills, owing to the danger of
kidney complications, is greatly important. Scarlatina was a name given popularly
to a milder form of the disease, although medical practitioners did not make
The pursuance of narrow interests often at the expense of others, which
in particular has frequently divided workers along gender, craft and occupational
s.e.e., see standard error.
Serial correlation, see autocorrelation.
Serious form of blood poisoning due to multiplication of bacteria in the
blood-stream. Usually caused by invasion of a wound by virulent bacteria.
Death may speedily follow.
Services: intangible commodities or products; e.g. transport,
finance or entertainment. cf. Goods.
Sexually Transmitted Disease, STD: See Venereal
in statistics, the degree to which an observed relationship
can be regarded as sufficiently different from its null hypothesis to
be disregarded as a result of chance.
statistical test to discern
the degree to which an estimated association differs from the null hypothesis
that the proposed causal relationship can be attributed to chance.
an overcrowded district containing inadequate,
low quality housing, often ancient and usually insalubrious and disagreeable
in character, populated by those socially marginalized, the poor, unemployed
and recent immigrants, who can only afford low rents.
Highly contagious and life-threatening disease, characterized by fever
accompanied by an eruption of red pimples, later producing pus and then
drying and falling off in crusts. There is also great inflammation around
the pimples which can be disfiguring. There is also marked fever, and
death is most common for the very young and very old. Certain varieties
of Smallpox are more lethal, such as haemorrhagic smallpox where there
is bleeding from various mucous surfaces, and confluent smallpox, where
mortality is at over 50% of cases. In London in the eighteenth century,
one in every twelve deaths was due to Smallpox. Originating in Asia, it
spread extensively in Europe after the Crusades. Spread by contact with
sufferers or with their clothes. Smallpox has proved very susceptible
to vaccination and, following international health campaigns, appears
to have been eliminated throughout the world.
Spatial: relating to space; used to denote geographical
Standard deviation, SD:
a statistical measure
of dispersion around the arithmetic mean; square root of the variance.
The square root of the average of the squared deviations from the mean.
The standard deviation is a more convenient measure of variance than the
variance because the unit of measurement is the same as the variable to
which is applies (In other words, in examining the heights of a regiment
of soldiers, the standard deviation would be measured in metres but, not
very helpfully, the variance would be calculated in squared metres).
Standard error, or s.e.e.: the standard
deviation of the error terms around an estimated regression line; this
indicates dispersion of observed cases around the line of best fit and
is indicative of the statistical significance of an estimated relationship.
Statistics: although colloquially used as a synonym
for numerical information (e.g. size of population, wage rates), statistics
is a branch of mathematics which uses quantitative techniques to analyse
numerical information. Two types of statistical analysis are important
for historians: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
STD: Sexually Transmitted Disease. See
a random variable of zero mean and
Or peptic ulcer. A degenerative change in the
mucous membrane of the intestinal wall causes the area to be less able to resist
the action of gastric acid, and an ulcer or wound appears and starts to penetrate
through the coats of the stomach or duodenum. If perforation occurs, this may
prove fatal, as may severe bleeding or obstruction of the opening of the stomach
caused by the ulcer. Peptic ulcers are marked by severe abdominal pain and sometimes
vomiting of blood. The condition of stomach ulcer is two to three times more
prevalent in men and becomes more likely as age increases. Duodenal ulcers,
occurring in the upper part of the intestine, are ten to fifteen times more
likely than stomach ulcers, and are even more common in men. The difference
is that they affect people at any age after 20 years onwards. They are also
more common among higher social classes (stomach ulcers being more common in
the lower social strata) and the large increase in all peptic ulcers since the
turn of the century has mainly been due to the duodenal form. Both forms often
become chronic disease, lasting many years. The cause is still uncertain. There
appear to be links with stress and heredity. More recently, despite expressions
of sustained disbelief among the established medical experts, a micro-organism
has been found to be the cause of a large number of cases.
Disease caused by the action of a variety of bacteria
which form strings. Responsible for scarlet fever and erysipelas.
Syndicalism supports the struggle for workers' control based on direct
action through industrially organised unions and is opposed to arbitration
and conciliation agreements.
Swing: see electoral swing.
Primarily a venereal disease. Symptoms include initial
sores in the area of infection, fever and later growth of hard nodules. When
these develop in the brain, the central nervous system can be effected. Can
be acquired from persons suffering or congenital. The acquired form is usually
via sexual intercourse, but kissing, contact with wounds or sometimes with clothing
and articles used by sufferers may spread the disease. Often claimed to have
been introduced into Europe by sailors returning from newly discovered America,
though some evidence suggests previous occurrence in medieval Europe. Effectively
treatable with penicillin.
A form of scientific management, named after F. W. Taylor an American
engineer, designed to increase control over the workforce.
Or lockjaw. Disorder of the nervous system caused by a bacteria which
inhabits earth and dust. Caused by infection of a wound with earth containing
bacteria, and poison produced by the bacteria finding its way into the
spinal cord. Symptoms are stiffness in the muscles near the wound and
in those around the jaw, causing difficulty opening the mouth. Convulsions
in the muscles can cause asphyxia from prolonged contraction of the respiratory
muscles. It is most dangerous in the young and the old, where mortality
can be up to 40%. The development of immunization through antitoxin has
made the disease much less prevalent.
Time series data:
statistical information organised in order of
occurrence through time: e.g. the annual value of exports from the port
of Bristol between 1851 and 1900 or the population of Bristol enumerated
in various years since 1000 AD. cf cross-sectional data.
Trade cycle: see business cyclew.
Type I Error:
erroneous rejection of a null hypothesis
which is true.
Type II Error:
erroneous failure to reject a null
hypothesis which is false.
Refers to any of the diseases in which small, hard, prominent
and circumscribed tumours (permanent or sometimes producing pus) are formed
in various parts of the body, with the multiplication and changing of the tubercles
leading to a destruction of the organ in which they were found. All of the forms
of the disease are caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most commonly it
refers to pulmonary tuberculosis: the form of the disease in the lungs.
Or enteric fever (fever of the intestines). A water-borne
fever, distinguished from typhus by ulceration of the intestines. It was not
distinguished from Typhus until the middle of the nineteenth century. Similar
symptoms and causal bacteria to dysentery and food-poisoning. Caused by the
salmonella typhi bacteria. After a fever stage, there are abdominal pains, pink
spots on the torso, and gradual weakening of the patient. Death occurs through
exhaustion, bowel haemorrhage, perforated stomach ulcer, excessive rise in temperature
or complications such as inflammation of the lungs. The disease is spread through
the faeces and urine of sufferers, either through water or milk, or via house
flies. Insanitary condition of drains, water supplies, milk and food are thus
favourable conditions for the spread of the disease.
Typhus Fever :
Covering a number of different forms, with epidemic
typhus, or spotted fever, being the main form in Europe tending to occur in
famine conditions (such as the Irish potato famines). Carried by the louse and
spread through their dried faeces. Probably the ancient famine-sickness. Also
murine typhus, spread by flea infected rats, is a world-wide form, and is prevalent
in crowded, unsanitary, rat-infested areas. Typhus is characterized by a general,
dusky, mottled rash with specific lesions of the bowels. Death can follow a
comatose stage, through heart failure, or gangrene. Mortality can be up to 100%
in weakened communities. All forms are caused by the rickettsia organism, which
are intermediate between bacteria and viruses. Typhus has been made far less
lethal since the introduction of specific antibiotics.
Formerly referring specifically to inoculation with cowpox to prevent
smallpox, now describes any process of infecting people with a modified
or mild form of a disease to obtain immunity, or protection, against the
more serious effects of the corresponding disease. The vaccine contains
the living virus, with the disease producing part of the micro-organism
destroyed. Developed for smallpox by Edward Jenner, a surgeon from Gloucestershire,
who scientifically proved the traditional local belief that a dose of
cowpox could give immunity from smallpox. He made his findings at the
turn of the eighteenth century, and his process of vaccination (or variolation
against smallpox, as he termed it) became widespread in the following
century; his work commemorated at the Jenner Museum at Berkeley in Gloucestershire
a case (observation) or set of cases
(observations) defined by one of more characteristics. For example, a
set of data representing the population of Bristol is a variable which
varies over time. It is also variable in another sense; the data for any
point in time it could also differ according to the definition adopted.
Variance, V, or, mean square deviation:
a statistical measure of dispersion around an arithmetic mean; the average
of the squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance
is the standard deviation.
Or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Disease,
usually of the genito-urinary organs, spread by sexual intercourse. Almost exclusively
used as a synonym for syphilis in early cause of death tables, but also could
cover such diseases as gonorrhoea and baptorrhoea.
Minute micro-organism (smaller than a bacterium)
capable of causing disease.
Contagious disease of the mucous membrane lining the
air passages, characterized by convulsive, strangulated coughing (with distinctive
'whooping' sound) which returns in fits and is usually terminated by vomiting.
Can cause complications in terms of fatal convulsions, and inflammatory affections
of the bronchial tubes and lungs. Mostly prevailing in the winter months, and
occurring in cycles of around three years. Usually a disease of childhood, most
prevalent between the ages of 1 and 4, and uncommon after 10. Effective preventive
measures were made with the introduction of vaccination against the disease.
The archaic term for acute infectious diseases. Originally
used by the Registrar General's department to refer to epidemic, endemic and
contagious diseases, thought to be caused by a process similar to fermentation.
This originally included a large number of diseases, but came to mean only the
major contagious diseases: such as typhus, typhoid, smallpox, scarlet fever,
measles, erysipelas, cholera, whooping cough and diphtheria. Now seldom used
because of the discredited theory upon which it rested.