10. Footnotes

1 i.e., There were a further 19 people drunk & another 27 people caught fighting at the time of their crime, but they were not charged for these offences in court. (See Table 12 - appendix).

2 (Excluding Fire Brigade). Some other comparative ratios for 1848 are: Bath, 1: 550; Berwick upon Tweed, 1: 3692, from F.C. Mather, Public Order in the Age of the Chartists (Manchester, University Press, 1959), p.239. That Bristol's ratio remained more or less the same for almost 40 years, indicates the effort which the force paid to keeping in sync with the rising population.

3 D. Taylor, The new police in 19th-century England. Crime, conflict & control (Manchester, University Press, 1997), p.105.

4 Bristol Register of Constables, Pol/St/2/1.

5 1: 483. Annual Report on Establishment & Crime, (Bristol, Bristol Constabulary, 1973), p.19.

6 Bristol Watch Committee Minutes (hereinafter abbreviated to WCM), 9 September, 1857. Though it was not until 4 November that a suitable station was selected (in Grove Place).

7 Ibid., 10 June, 1857.

8 Ibid., 5 August, 1857.

9 WCM, 27 May, 1857.

10 J. Hart, 'The County & Borough Police Act, 1856', Public Administration, 34 (1956), p.415. Yet more evidence that the feared Government takeover of local authorities never materialised.

11 Bristol Police Instruction Book, 1836, 34908(16)a, p.31. It is interesting to note that 'class' was made an issue.

12 Bristol Police Instruction Book, 1894, 34908(16)b, p.24.

13 M.C. Osborne, Policing Bristol. From the Middle Ages to Amalgamation in April 1974 (Bristol, Redcliffe, 1996), p.39.

14 The WCM suggest there to have been a high turnover of policemen. Every week details were added of those resigning, retiring, being dismissed, & those going AWOL from the force, whilst new lists of men being accepted into the force were recorded.

15 Osborne, Policing, p.17.

16 Just one example: PC 225 (Edwin Gould), who had only been in the force for little more than a month, was charged with being drunk on his beat, & was subsequently sent to the House of Correction for ten days. Bristol Mirror, 6 September, 1856.

17 Ibid., 15 September, 1855.

18 Ibid., 8 May, 1858.

19 Ibid., 7 November, 1857. Devonshire had similar difficulties, for which it was reported: "It is proverbial that men 'clothed in a brief authority', especially when the dignity has all the charm & importance of novelty, allow their zeal to outrun their discretion", Trewman's, 4 June, 1857.

20 Ibid., 14 November, 1857. Co-incidentally both cases occurred in Frogmore Street.

21 Ibid., 20 March, 1858. Again, notice the rhetoric of the 'English' emphasis.

22 This concerned a coachman who had refused to 'move on'. Ibid., 3 November, 1855.

23 Fined ten shillings & costs. Ibid., 18 September, 1858.

24 Ibid., 22 May, 1858.

25 The incident took place in Mary-le-port Street. Ibid., 9 & 16 October, 1858.

26 Instruction Book, 1836, p.35.

27 Ibid.

28 It did not work for he was fined five shillings. Mirror, November 6, 1858.

29 Western Daily Press, 1 June, 1858. (A newspaper which became Bristol's first daily in 1858).

30 Ibid.

31 Connected with Burton beer. From I.H. Evans, Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (London, Cassell, 1992), p.170. The act of offering free drinks to constables was one that continued into the 1870s. See B. Harrison, Drink & The Victorians. The Temperance Question in England 1815-1872 (London, Faber & Faber, 1971), p.376

32 Mirror, 25 August, 1855.

33 Ibid., 7 November, 1857.

34 Miss Pearn was nonetheless fined a sureity of 20 pounds. From the ibid., 31 January, 1857.

35 Again, this happened recently in Bristol with the release of paedophile Sidney Cooke. Evening Post, 24 April, 1998.

36 Mirror, 19 July, 1856.

37 Ibid., 19 September, 1857. Which labelled the incident as an "anti-mormon riot".

38 "The Magistrates said that a great breach of the peace had been committed, almost amounting to a riot, & it could not be overlooked." Ibid., January, 1855.

39 The tone of some of the reporting would infer that the riots were actually the Mormons' fault, there being no actual criticism of the police action. Ibid., 17 October, 1857. Incidentally, a more civilised debate concerning the Mormons was running in the Bristol Times, March, 1857.

40 C. Emsley & B. Weinberger (eds.), Policing Western Europe. Politics, Professionalism, & Public order, 1850-1940 (London, Greenwood, 1991), p.121 & 122. R. Reiner, The Politics of the Police (London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), p.51. Staffordshire (1845-47) experienced such a trend, with arrests for minor public order offences on the increase, as well as the number of cases of people assaulting officers or resisting arrest. (But in the same period reports of serious crime fell). D. Philips, Crime & Authority in Victorian England. The Black Country 1835-1860 (London, Croom Helm, 1977), p.86. Much of the disorderly behaviour in Bristol, constituted the breaking of panes of glass.

41 "Unfortunately, criminal statistics are possibly the most suspect category of a suspect breed." E.C. Midwinter, Law & Order in early Victorian Lancashire (York, St. Anthony's, 1968), p.33.

42 As Tobias proved from the Leeds crime figures, 1858-76. J.J. Tobias, Crime & Police in England 1700-1900 (Bristol, Gill & Macmillan, 1979), p.258.

43 Taylor, Police, p.96.

44 "The national totals are as strong only as the weakest component." Tobias, Crime, p.19.

45 H. Parris, 'The Home Office & the Provincial police in England & Wales-1856-1870', Public Law (1961)', p.246.

46 J. Briggs, C. Harrison, A. McInnes & D. Vincent, Crime & Punishment in England. An introductory history (London, UCL, 1996), p.121.

47 P. Singer, Democracy & Disobedience (Oxford, Clarendon, 1973). Who draws modern day comparison to 'An Illustration: Disobedience in Northern Ireland', p.136.

48 Even the Mirror had its own crime vocabulary, including phrases such as "burgariously entering", February 3, 1855.

49 "STREET REGULATIONS", Instruction Book, 1836, p.47.

50 Including (to re-iterate) attempts to rescue prisoners in police custody, obstructing the police.

51 From T.R. Gurr, P.N. Grabosky & R.N. Hula, The Politics of Crime & Conflict. A Comparative History of Four Cities (London, Sage, 1977), p.75. Equally of comparison is the figure of 17%, indicative of the number of females who were summarily convicted (for all crimes, England & Wales) in 1859, from J.J. Tobias, 19th-century Crime. Prevention & Punishment (Newton Abbot, David & Charles, 1972), p.89.

52 Thirteen of which were not assaults, but rather rescuing prisoners, from custody, being abusive etc.

53 It is interesting to note that 1857 saw a dip in the number of females charged. Maybe following the inception of the 1857 Act, constables were less willing to haul females into court & charge them with crimes against them.

54 Mirror, 27 October, 1855.

55 Ibid., 27 June 1857.

56 Ibid., 19 January, 1856.

57 Both the Bristol Gazette, 17 January, 1856 & the Bristol Times, 19 January, 1856 described the prisoner as "a tall powerful fellow". This must lead one to think that they all used the same news agency source.

58 'Not worthy of public interest' - a popular phrase used by the press, especially when reporting on cases of drunkenness which went before the court, which were so commonplace as to not warrant explanation.

59 Ibid., 27 October 1855.

60 Ibid., 17 November, 1855.

61 Leeds also experienced problems with off-duty soldiers. R.D. Storch, 'The Plague of the Blue Locusts. Police reform & popular resistance in northern England, 1840-57', International Review of Social History, 20 (1975), p.74.

62 Assailant was fined forty shillings & costs. Mirror, 10 November, 1855.

63 Ibid., 24 November, 1855.

64 Ibid., 3 November, 1855.

65 Ibid., 10 November, 1855.

66 Ibid., 1 December, 1855.

67 Taylor, Police, p.95 (& see p.92). The same author suggests that the Irish had to become used to 'respectable' English standards (p.123).

68 R. Swift, Police Reform in Early Victorian York (York, University of York, 1988), p.21.

69 Some 2.9% of the English & Welsh population in fact, in 1851. R. Swift, The Irish in Britain 1815-1914 (London, Historical Association, 1990), p.12.

70 C. Emsley, 'Crime in 19th-century Britain', History Today (1988), p.45.

71 Mirror, 2 June, 1855.

72 Ibid., 14 July, 1855.

73 Ibid., 14 August, 1858. In fact the docks were worthy of there own 'River Police' section by 1844. B. Howell, The Police in Late Victorian Bristol (Bristol, BBHA/Bristol UP, 1989), p.18.

74 The youth was discharged with a caution. From the Mirror, 9 October, 1858. Other names the police have been called include 'blue bottles', & many other derivatives, (see Storch, 'Plague', p.71). One of the most endearing & derogatory names for the police - the 'pigs' - was derived during this Victorian era, Evans, Brewer's, p.473.

75 In fact the young seemed to have received a rough time in 1850s' Bristol. One little boy was thrown into the Malago-Brook, Bedminster, by a fifteen year old lad, in order to "test out the depth" of the river. Fortunately the police were on hand. Western Daily Press, 1 June, 1858.

76 The accused was fined 40 shillings. This little episode also occurred outside the theatre. Mirror, 18 October, 1856.

77 One being a "mulatto boy". Ibid., 27 October, 1855.

78 Ibid., 16 May, 1857.

79 A figure which increased to 60/75% by Edwardian times. M.J. Wiener, Reconstructing the criminal (Cambridge, University Press, 1990), p.342.

80 Mirror, 22 September & 8 December, 1855.

81 Ibid., 2 January, 1858.

82 Ibid., 13 January, 1855.

83 Ibid., 23 October, 1858.

84 A main source of P.C. fines (& even dismissals) resulted from not patrolling one's beat properly. See WCM.

85 Storch, 'Plague', p.87.

86 As in the case of PC 86 who was assaulted by James Scott, after he had charged the prisoner in the past with beating his wife. Mirror, 29 August, 1857.

87 W.A. Westley, Violence & the Police. A Sociological Study of the Law, Custom, & Morality (London, MIT, 1970), p.72.

88 W.R. Miller, Cops & Bobbies. Police Authority in New York & London, 1830-1870 (London, University of Chicago, 1977), p.62.

89 In Bristol of 1845 there was one policeman per 514 members of the public. By 1857 this proportion had reached one policeman per 485. From R. Walters, The Establishment of the Bristol Police Force (Bristol, BBHA/Bristol UP, 1975), p.28.

90 Osborne, Policing, p.39 & Howell, Police, p.15. Other areas also had plain-clothes sections in 1856, including Salford.

91 They were each fined five pounds & costs. Mirror, 19 July, 1856.

92 His assailant was fined a sureity of twenty pounds to answer the charge at the forthcoming Quarter Sessions. Ibid., 2 August, 1856.

93 J.E. Butler asked whether such a secret police was 'allowable' in J.E. Butler, Government by Police (London, Unwin, 1888), p.15.

94 Mirror, 19 September, 1857.

95 Such as the Customs officer who was assaulted, ibid., 4 August, 1855. Or even the tax collector who had a carving knife drawn on him, from the ibid., 29 August, 1857.

96 Ibid., 12 September, 1857.

97 Ibid., 3 November, 1855.

98 This was another quarrel that took place concerning rented accommodation. Jones was fined 10 shillings & costs. Ibid., 22 September, 1855. The 1851 Common Lodging Houses Act though appearing to the naked eye to be inconsequential to the history of the police, actually helped to enable increased police surveillance of known criminals in rented accommodation & closed down sixty of some of Bristol's poorest houses. From K. Chesney, The Victorian Underworld (London, Temple Smith, 1970), pp.105-106, & Miller, Cops, p.128.

99 "The magistrates said it was a growing evil, this standing about in the streets, & fined" the boy five shillings. Mirror, 27 February, 1858. Yet as was witnessed earlier, the police could be severely reprimanded for precisely what Noble had experienced - the pushing about of people in the street.

100 Fined 10 shillings & costs Ibid., 20 June, 1857.

101 A "dangerous practice", commented the magistrate & fined Kilmister 40 shillings. Ibid., 3 February, 1855.

102 21 (out of the 660) faced combined charges of assault & rescuing a prisoner from police custody.

103 Mirror, July 14, 1855.

104 A policy which came into vogue during the early 1970s. M.R. Chatterton, 'The Cultural Craft of Policing - Its Past & Future relevance', Policing & Society, 5 (1995).

105 For the Metropolitan Police during 1 January 1847 to 16 October 1847, 835 were charged with assaulting the police, & of that total, 71 (8.5%) were not convicted. From C. Emsley, Crime & Society in England (London, Longman, 1996), p.214.

106 Sometimes a charge was not proceeded with if the prisoner had been dealt with roughly, as was the case with six of the 91 prisoners. For example: PC 78 "withdrawing the charge of assault, in consequence of the prisoner having received a blow from his staff in the head", Mirror, 26 May, 1855; "The prisoner's head was severely cut by a fall while being taken into custody, & the charge was not pressed", ibid., 24 July, 1858. Maybe police-assaulter Edward Gale had the sympathetic police & magistrates in mind when, as he "was being conveyed to the station he lay down in Union-street, & could not be got up in time to prevent a cab going over his legs", ibid., 13 March, 1858. It seemed to work for he was discharged. Another assaulter of the police, William Murray (LTC) managed to get a discharge in consideration of the punishment he received from a brewer, ibid., 1 December, 1855.

107 Ibid., 19 July, 1856.

108 Taylor, Police, n.54, p. 131.

109 Instruction Book, 1836, p.34.

110 Which sometimes (though extremely rarely) led to an investigation into the constable's conduct.

111 As happened with Patrick Tilly, who used a stick & razor against PC 30. Mirror, 19 September, 1857.

112 In Ashley Road. Ibid., 10 October, 1857.

113 Fines of ú13 were given for the assault of two PCs, in Deighton, 1856, Storch, 'Plague', p.85. A lot of money for anyone to pay.

114 Taylor, Police, n.19, p.129.

115 Howell, Police, p.10.

116 i.e., a tin pot, a hammer, a piece wood, a pair of tongs, a bucket, a poker, a razor, a belt buckle, a walking stick, bottles. Stones (22 cases from 1855 to 1858) were also common.

117 An act for which he was fined sixpence. WCM, 29 April, 1857.

118 R. Ingleton, Arming the British Police (London, Frank Cass, 1996), p.12.

119 In Cumberland Basin, & Gloucester Lane respectively. P. Hallett, 150 Years Policing of Bristol (Bristol, Avon & Somerset Constabulary, 1986), p.12.

120 Ingleton, Arming, p.32.

121 Mirror, 6 October, 1855.